5.1.2 Inorganic flocculants The flocculation efficiency of cationic polymers such as chitosan is highly dependent on pH with a pH of 7 being optimal for flocculation in low salinity media [67]. Flocculation mechanism: • Flocculants, with their very high molecular weights (long monomer chain ) and their charge content, fix the destabilized particles and aggregates along the polymer chain. After a series of hydrolysis, polymerization and ferrous oxidation processes, it develops into various hydroxyl groups. Review the documents for the Research phase of the FRAME engineering design model. A Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in suspension (slurry or pulp) to cause the individual particles to collect in the form of flocs. Retention time for flocculation varies greatly but typically is longer than 15 minutes. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. The reaction principle of electro-flocculation is to use metals such as aluminum and iron as anodes. Chitosan-based flocculants are further discussed by Yang et al. Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. Common designs based on the flocculation principle are the horizontal reel and another one is the turbine mixer . Under the action of direct current, the anode is corroded to produce Al and Fe plasma. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely … [27]. Flocculation mechanism: • Principle: • Removal of Hydrophobic Colloids from the Aqueous Phase. 8. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. [68]. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration . (a) Flocculation and (b) protection. The amount of chemical you use is an important consideration for a green engineer. The formation of flocs aids in improved settling rates, better overhead clarity and/or faster filtration rates. flocculation and sedimentation to remove the colloidal particles in the water. Other articles where Flocculation test is discussed: serological test: …types of serological tests—for example, flocculation tests, neutralization tests, hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. Principle of bridging flocculation and protective effect of macromolecule. The flocculation process is also affected by pH, salts, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature and degree of mixing. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. 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