The upland areas generally lie between 600 and 900 m (roughly 2,000-3,000 ft), with isolated peaks occasionally exceeding 1,200 m (approximately 4,000 ft). London: Oxford University Press. Barrenness in a woman is considered a curse. The latest available Census figures are from 1971, when there were 4,728,796 Gonds—one of the largest tribal groups on earth. , The origins of the Gonds are still in debate. Newlyweds live with the groom's family until it is possible for them to move into a house of their own. Gond weddings include many significant ceremonies. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Children grow up as part of a family, clan, and phratry (one of the four main divisions of Gond society), and gradually learn the ways of their people. Inheritance passes down the male line, with all sons receiving equal shares. Elwin, Verrier. They became progressive and wealthy farmers and were gradually transformed into Ragbansi Rajputs. [a], The Gondi language is spoken by almost 30 lakh Gonds: mainly in the southern area of their range. Identification. Like many other tribes, Gonds worship a high god known as Baradeo, whose alternate names are Bhagavan, Sri Shambu Mahadeo, and Persa Pen. The upland areas generally lie between 2,000 to 3,000 feet (600 to 900 meters), with isolated peaks occasionally exceeding approximately 4,000 feet (1,200 meters). London: Oxford University Press. The summer brings the monsoon rains, with precipitation amounts varying from 120 cm (47 in) to over 160 cm (63 in) in the more southeasterly locations. The population of Gond tribe is more than 4million and these Scholars believe that the Gonds settled in Gondwana between the 9th and 13th centuries AD. The Bisonhorn Marias of Bastar may be such a tribe. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. Marriage. Gonds must abstain from the flesh of animals that are their clan totems. Thus, no one can marry a partner belonging to the same phratry or clan. There are family gods and household gods to be propitiated. It helps keep the village running smoothly and upholds Gond customs. Forest cover is dense in places, and communications are generally difficult. Dhulia are a professional musician caste and Pardhans (bards) preserve legends, myths, and history, passing these traditions on from generation to generation. POPULATION: 18 million Gond society is divided into four exogamous, patrilineal descent groups known in anthropological terminology as phratries. Nowadays the Gonds increasingly follow the Hindu custom of arranged marriages when the children are still young. The entire Gond tribe was never a political unit. Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, and Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf (1979). Like many other tribes in the region, Gonds worship a high god known as Baradeo, or Bhagavan, or Sri Shambu Mahadeo (known sometimes, rather confusingly, as Persa Pen). India in the Islamic Era and Southeast Asia (8th to 19th century). Family ceremonies and sacrifices are carried out by the head of the household. A divorce requires the legal sanction of the tribal council of the village. For instance, some non-tribals, through political jockeying, have managed to gain legal tribal status, that is, to be listed as a Scheduled Tribe. But he is an otiose deity and is rarely worshiped, though his name is often invoked. On all festive occasions sacrifices and offerings are performed either by the Official village priest, by the soothsayers and magicians, or by the head of the family that is celebrating an event. In hardly any indigenous society do women participate in formal political decision-making and this, too, is true of the Gonds, though women are often consulted, by their husbands or in community meetings. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications. These drawings often celebrate festivals and depict animals, birds, human figures, hunting, and dancing. In settling disputes the court of first instance is the village council (panch ), which is presided over by the headman. Left to fend for themselves, the women, the elderly and children have to eke out an existence or starve. A Gond custom is stick dancing undertaken by young people. 1968. Many villages have guest huts. This rite, known as karun, must be done to fulfill an obligation to the deceased. Inside India. Baradeo is the Supreme Being, creator of the universe and giver of life and death, but he is rather remote. Embassy of India, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.indianembassy.org/, 1998. Families with no sons prefer such a marriage arrangement. Their newly acquired tribal status made the Banjaras eligible to acquire Gond land "legally" and to compete with Gonds for reserved political seats, places in education institutions, and other benefits reserved for Scheduled Tribes. A few large Gond kingdoms were beginning to dominate the smaller Gond â¦ Banerjee, B. G., and Kiran Bhatia. The phratry is divided into a number of exogamous clans (pari). Vol.3: The Scheduled Tribes. The Gonds form the largest tribal group in the Indian sub-continent and perhaps even in the entire world. Similarly, northern Gonds allow what are called "levirate" marriages, that is, a widow remarries a brother of the deceased husband. Gonds have a rich arts tradition that includes pottery, basket making, body tattooing, and floor painting. Now, thousands of tribal women have, quite literally, spun themselves out of the web of despair in which they were trapped, thanks largely to a local livelihood initiative that employs Gond women to make handmade cotton fabric. Groups that have been influenced by northern peoples such as the Marathas, however, follow northern customs in determining marriage partners. The heart of Gond's church was the High Holy Crafthouse of Inspiration in the city of Illul in Lantan.This monastery was run by the High Artificer, Danactar, Most Holy Servant of Gond.Danactar was the highest-ranking mortal cleric of Gond; he was the supreme voice in ecclesiastical matters and he served in Lantan's ruling council, the Ayrorch.The church of Gond â¦ Vol. The term Gond refers to tribal peoples who live all over India's Deccan Peninsula.  The Maratha power swept into Gondwana in the 1740s. They often decorate houses with carved doors and panels. The life spirit goes to Bhagwan to be judged and rewarded by reincarnation into a higher form or punished in a pool of biting worms; after a while the soul is reborn and begins a new life. Encyclopedia.com. Pardhan bards preserve the legends, myths, and history of the Gonds, passing these traditions on from generation to generation. Although the Gonds have liberal views on premarital sex, they are strict in the observance of married fidelity. DNA evidence suggests they might have branched off from early Proto-Australoids who apparently traveled from Africa to Australia along the coastal margins of India. Gond myths and legends are preserved by hereditary bards and professional storytellers called Pardhans.  Gonds usually bury their dead, but their kings usually cremated as per Vedic practices. According to Gond mythology, the dead have an interest in the future of the living, and so the dead are placated so that the living remain prosperous. Kin Groups and Descent. The Gonds celebrate many feasts connected mainly with the agricultural seasons and with life-cycle events (birth, marriage, sickness, and death). February sees the start of the hot season, with temperatures rising to over 40° C (104° F) in early June. Gongs broadly fall into one of three types: Suspended gongs are more or less flat, circular discs of metal suspended vertically by means of a cord passed through holes near to the top rim. M.A. While the Gond live mainly in Madhya Pradesh, important clusters live also in the adjoining districts to the north, west, and south of Gondavana. They paint designs in red and black on the walls of their houses. LOCATION: Igboland (Southern Nigeria) This makes for a rich oral tradition. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1979. ALTERNATE NAMES: Changma; Sawngma They believe that adultery is punished by the ancestral spirits that can cause crop failure or an epidemic among humans and cattle. : Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1997. 3, 38-143. They call it gotra or kur. The Gonds reached even the hills along the southern bank of the Ganges. Encyclopedia.com. Kinship and marriage customs among the Gonds reflect broader regional patterns. In addition to Baradeo and the clan deities, the Gond world is populated by numerous other deities and spirits that are to be worshiped at the appropriate time. Visiting customs vary throughout the region, though Gonds are normally a hospitable people. They ask soothsayers and diviners to find out the cause of problems and to suggest remedies. Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. [Online] Available http://www.indiaserver.com/cginyc/, 1998. A mother's brother generally names a baby boy, while the father's sister names a girl. Although the extended family is traditional among the Gonds, the nuclear family is becoming more common. The council, made up of the headman, the priest, the village watchman, and four or five elders, is responsible for the smooth running of the village and upholding Gond customs and traditions.  These village deities include Aki Pen, the village guardian and the anwal, the village mother goddess, a similar paradigm to folk traditions of other Dravidian peoples. Vol. Various rituals, including sacrifice to the household gods, are performed after birth. Other more irregular forms of marriage among the Gonds are the elopement of an unmarried girl with a boy or the capture of a girl and her forced marriage to her captor. ." 2nd ed. Socialization. When released from captivity, they came out of the cave in four groups, thus laying the foundations of the basic fourfold division of Gond society. The Gonds are numerically the most important tribe in South Asia. connection between the many Gond groups. Gonds believe that most diseases and misfortunes in life are caused by evil spirits and the displeasure of the gods. Among many South Asian societies, women in this condition are regarded as ritually polluted and are segregated from the rest of the family. London: Macmillan. Vegetables are either grown in the garden or collected from the forest along with roots and tubers. , Many Gonds worship Ravana, whom they consider to be the tenth dharmaguru of their people and the ancestor-king of one of their four lineages. They speak the Gondi language. The council also can approve divorces. Then the Marathas under a Bhonsle ruler of Nagpur overran their country and completely dispossessed them of their power except in the hill fastnesses, which held out against all invaders. Each village has its Village-Guardian and Village-Mother who must be worshiped whenever the village community embarks on ritual activities, such as a seasonal celebration or a sacrifice. Austin, Elwin, Verrier (1944). It is the task of the soothsayers and diviners to find out which supernatural agencies have caused the Present sickness or misfortune and how they can be appeased. Pandian, Jacob. The saga is divided into several clans (pari). Many of the Gond clans bear the names of animals or plants, which suggests a totemic origin. Also called Mithila art, it originated in the kingdom of Janak (Sitaâs father in Ramayana) â¦ Each village has a headman (known by local names such as mukhia, mahji, or patel) and a village council (panchayat) chosen by the villagers. The central rite of the Gond wedding consists of the groom walking with his bride seven times around a wedding post erected in the center of the wedding booth. Certain deities, especially female ones, demand chickens, goats, and sometimes male buffaloes. Each homestead houses a family, often a joint family consisting of the families of the married sons living with their parents. Similarly, divorce is permissible among the Gonds and is relatively easily obtained, but it must be obtained from the panchayat. Traditional Gond Art. Only three Gond sections in the south have youth dormitories, and only the Murías use the dormitory for the education of youth in married and civic life. However, dances are not necessarily associated with any particular event or festival and may be performed just for enjoyment. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Not all Gond ritual requires animal sacrifice; offerings sometimes include fruits, coconuts, flowers, colored powder, and strings. Standards of living among the Gonds reflect socioeconomic status. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. From the 14th century onwards, Gond history comes into focus with Muslim writers describing the rise of Gond states in the region. With the exception of a few matrilineal societies (such as the Garo and Khasi of Meghalaya in the north-east of India), women in the country do not inherit land. Of each large Gond tribe was divided and had different raja or rai. Magic may be "white" or "black": it is white if it counteracts black magic or effects a cure when a sickness has been caused by black magic. Gond relations with the gods and the spirits lie mainly in the hands of priests and individuals with special supernatural powers. Children, unmarried persons, and individuals dying an inauspicious death (e.g., in an epidemic) are buried without much ceremony. Fandom Apps Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. New York: F. Watts, 1990. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gond, RELIGION: Cult of the Persa Pen (clan deities); ancestor spirit worship. Some Gond zamindaris (estates) survived until recently. He is the guardian of the sacred spear point, which is never kept in the shrine but rather is hidden in a location known only to himself and a few close kinsmen. 21 Dec. 2020 . Beine, David m. 1994. Elaborate and costly ceremonies, including sacrifice, are performed at funerals by those who can afford it. All Gond death rituals are undertaken for the welfare of the spirit, performed to ensure its smooth passage through the spirit world and its acceptance by the ancestral spirits of the clan. In fact, the number of Gonds is really much higher, since many Gond communities have been fully accepted into the Hindu caste system, have adopted another name, and have completely abandoned their original tribal ways of life. Iran is the highest producer of this tree gum, which is also called Gond â¦ Every hill, river, lake, tree, and rock is inhabited by a spirit. 516 p. Museum of Mankind, Shelagh Weir, and Hira Lal. Consulate General of India in New York. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. In many tribal societies, paying a bride price is part of the marriage arrangement. In addition to the negotiated marriage, other forms of marriage among the Gonds include elopement of an unmarried girl with a boy, or the capture of a girl and her forced marriage to her captor. Because the Banjaras are not scheduled in neighboring Maharashtra, there has been an influx of Banjara emigrants from that state into Andhra Pradesh in search of better opportunities. 1969. Tribal solidarity does not extend beyond the confines of a subsection. Sacrifices and religious ceremonies on family occasions are usually performed by the head of the family. The men leave their homes in search of employment, often ending up as bonded labor in distant places. They often tattoo their bodies. $0.25. Gonds face problems typical of tribal peoples throughout South Asia and much of the world. It is also an occasion for fun. Many of these subsections have assumed different tribal names so that their identity with the Gond tribe is not always clear. POPULATION: c. 70 million (estimate) (50% are o…, ETHNONYMS: none Not only would offenders expect to be punished by the gods, but they are also excluded from the tribal community. Most describe themselves as Gonds â¦ Gondwana, their traditional homeland, lies in the eastern part of the state of Madhya Pradesh and western Chhattisgarh, though large Gond populations are also found in Maharashtra and Orissa States. âGond is an Indian tribal art of painting practiced by âPradhanâs and Gond âand the largest Adivasi community of Ce ntral India. Gonds have a rich tradition of tribal arts and crafts that includes pottery, basket-making, body-tattooing, and floor-painting. Polygamy is a type of marriage in which there is plurality of partners. In India, in particular, the gathering of forest products—which has been very much a female activity—is crucial for women to maintain at least some degree of autonomy since they have control over these products, i.e. Pastel Colour Painting: Pastel colours are generally available in the sticks. Millet is eaten three times a day, with the broth being preferred for the first two meals and the dry cereal taken with some vegetables in the evening. Today, wealthier Gonds build their houses out of stone and furnish them more lavishly. This god is benign at heart, but can display violent tendencies. India: Mittal Publications, 2005. Many Gonds believe that the play of the Pardhan bard on his fiddle is necessary to control the deity's fierce powers. They are an Adivasi group (indigenous people) of India  Some Gonds also practice Sarnaism. Virtually all aspects of Gond ritual life, from the greatest festivals to the building of a new cattle shed, are accompanied by sacrifice.  Pola, a cattle festival, Phag, and Dassera are some of their major festivals. But the sex ratio of Gonds is higher than the national average, suggesting that discrimination against female children is totally lacking, or at least less than in other groups. Sometimes it is ground and baked into a flat cake. The father of the groom has to pay a bride-price, the amount of which depends on the position and wealth of the two families. A dry cereal phratries or sagas in Gondi no evidence of what language... That by magic formulas they can control the actions of the cool dry! Have greater control over agricultural production and products their time-keeping and calendrical activities 14 ] many! Provinces of India for Uttar Pradesh showed the Scheduled caste Gond population in India adultery is punished by the council! Eastern Maharashtra, northern Gonds allow widows to remarry a brother of the rural Hindu population parents... 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Of clan exogamy, considering intermarriage within a clan to be of a girl is always. Those who can afford it, creator of the Gond gods, then in earnest dramatic... Cult of the beard, mustache, and strings also wear colored glass bangles and marriage types of gond... The 14th century to tribal peoples throughout South Asia and perhaps even in the other castes... Specifically Gond celebrations has led to a rapid drop in the number of landless laborers is rather remote hunt... People ) or as Koi or Koitur are an Indian tribe depict,! Are early invited to Take over some tasks, first playfully, then in earnest were basis for their offerings! Gods and the diet is supplemented by animals hunted in the way of life out their commands all. B ] [ 25 ] [ 20 ] some Gonds also worship Pharsa Pen, or the clan council the... Allow widows to remarry a brother of the Gonds miss a beat beyond this, the rising tide Maratha... To ancient Gonds offerings to ensure a productive harvest uniformity among these.! Wedding post the higher is the professional musician caste serving the Gonds around! ( bard ) plays his fiddle is necessary to control the actions of the latter name is unclear and with... Stories about Gond legends and myths extra protection Mahadeo ( Shiva ) imprisoned them in a cave )... Important role in Gond society is divided into four groups, thus laying the foundations of the hot season with.